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# Rural Education in India and its Problems

Nov 16, 2021


In India, the right to education is a fundamental right which states that every citizen of India between the age of 6 to 14 years get free and compulsory education.

This provision ensures that every citizen of India should get education up to 14 years without any discrimination. But the reality is far different from this.

The literacy rate in India is 77.7%. However, the literacy rate of Urban region in India is 87.7% whereas in rural India it is only 73.5%. There are many reasons behind the difference between these two. Some of the challenges or problems are given below.

Problems in education in rural India

Nearly 65.53% population of India reside in a rural area. There is a wide gap between urban and rural education system. The literacy rate of the urban area and the rural area are also wide.

According to ASER report, the survey was conducted and cover almost all rural districts; it was found that more than 50% of the children of age 3 to 16 years are not able to read and perform arithmetic abilities in the age group of 5to 16 years. However, the problems related to education in rural India are:

Lack of availability of resources

There is a lack of availability of resources in the rural regions in India. There is also a lack of infrastructure in the schools situated in rural areas—no availability of benches, playgrounds, laboratories, washrooms or if present they are in the worst condition.

Sometimes the textbooks are not available in proper quantity, or if available they are not in good condition. Also, the availability of stationery is also a challenge. Many rural Indians don’t have enough money to bear stationary charges and other expenses. 

 Another challenge is there is no transportation availability as there is poor connectivity from one place to another place.  

Another challenge is less availability of teachers. In India, the school in rural areas have only one or two teachers in the school.

Lack of awareness of the importance of education

Another reason for the low literacy rate in rural regions in India is the lack of awareness of the importance of education. People in rural regions are mostly engaged in agricultural and allied sectors. Children from the beginning are engaged in these sectors and not give much importance to their studies.

Religious beliefs and some societal norms also a hiccup in the path of providing education in rural India. Many rural Indians believe that children, especially girls, should not study much and don’t have to cover a long distance to go to school. Instead of getting the education, they should focus on some work which helps them in earning.

Less availability of school

There is also less availability of schools in rural regions. Many students have to go from one village to another village by covering miles of distance. Another challenge is the non-availability of transport. It takes long hours to reach school and to come back home. This challenge also aids in increasing drop-out student ratios in rural India.  

Digital dividend

Another challenge in rural education in India is the digital dividend. In a globalized world, where everyone is technology prone and using their application in daily life. It is necessary that everyone should have knowledge about their use. 

 During the corona time, education is given in online mode, but due to poor connectivity, rural children are not able to get an education. This also creates a barrier in the education of rural India. Some of them also don’t have a smartphone due to which they can’t access education.

Ways to boost rural education in India

We need to overcome the abovesaid obstruction to boost education in India. In order to boost up this, we need to adopt the following measures:

Encourage free education

One of the most important ways to boost rural education is boosted up free education. as our constitution provides the right to education to all citizens of India. The government should focus on how they can increase the enrolment of children who reside in rural areas.

This can be done by establishing more schools, providing proper infrastructure and resources. The government should also ensure that the number of children who are attending school must retain education up to elementary level.

Another reason for encouraging free education is that people of rural India don’t have much income so they can’t afford high school fees and eventually drop out the school.

Increase the number of schools

The government should set up more school in rural India to boost up education. Most of the children have to leave their education due to the large distance between the home and the school.

This is the case, especially for girls. Most of the girls drop out of school due to non-availability of transport. If the schools are set up at every village, it will aid in increasing the enrolment percentage and decrease the drop -out rate of rural children.

By increasing the modern teaching technologies

Modern technologies are very important in imparting education. Today in a globalised world where technology is rapidly emerging, it is necessary for every individual that they are updated with the current technology.

Also, the focus of education should be on conceptual learning not on rote learning so that the students must use the applications of these new technologies.

By providing proper infrastructure and resources

Another way to boost up the education in rural India is by providing proper infrastructure and resources. The objective of education is the all-round development of the individual.

Availability of resources is also important for providing education. Resources include textbooks, stationery, laboratories, playgrounds, and benches should be in good condition and available for all the students. This will aid in achieving the objective of education and retaining the number of students in education.

The government should make provisions and schemes to boost up education in India, especially focusing on rural India.


The literacy rate of India is 77.7%, but it is different in rural and urban India. There is a wide gap between the literacy rate of urban and rural India. However, the reason behind the low literacy rate in rural India is many.

The problems faced by rural India in achieving the education are less number of schools and resources, less availability of teachers, religious and societal norms, the large distance between the school and home, lack of awareness of education.

The way to improve the present scenario of education in rural India is the construction of schools in every village, providing proper and adequate infrastructure and other resources, using modern technologies in education, creating awareness about the importance of education and rights.